COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS

COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!
THE GLO B AL V ILLA G E ==> VERIFIERS R U LE!!








DRAFT

EXPERIMENTS WITH THE SILVER BULLET FOR CRACKING COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS






INTRODUCTION


Any fiercely sought after success by a very large body of students in a competitive examination becomes a social event. This will naturally have positive savory aspects and also negative unsavory aspects. The example of a typical competitive examination is taken. Experiments were conducted for about a decade to test out a directive from Prof. C A R Hoare, of Oxford, when he visited India. He suggested that one should search for COMMON SENSE explanations in the study and exposition of concepts and principles in engineering and science. The experiments spanning a decade were conducted in real life. They involved the direct training/coaching of a couple of thousand students to tackle competitive examinations in a few conceptually challenging and difficult subject areas, with hundreds of success stories and observing firsthand the progress of about half a lakh aspiring students in a spectrum of subject areas, again with hundreds of success stories. No entry level screening of the students was done except for the requirement that they were bonafide students in the third or fourth year of undergraduate engineering education. Recently qualified students awaiting employment, some postgraduate students and a sprinkling of engineering college faculty were also part of the audience. They spanned a large spectrum of intellectual capability from the mediocre to excellent. Their entry level technical preparation for the experiments spanned a wide spectrum from very poor to very good. Based on the success story a savory technical model is outlined for aspiring students and GATE shops. The unsavory behind the scenes activities the business model involves and threats looming on the horizon are then outlined for general social consumption.


OUR STUDENTS ARE VERIFIERS OF SOLUTIONS!!!!!!


THE SOLVER OF PROBLEMS DOES NOT EXIST!!!!!!







COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS

THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !




PART I : THE PROPHECIES OF SUCCESS
GATE: SOARING TO THE CLOUDS
THE GATE SHOP: TECHNICAL MODEL
CRACKING GATE: THE SILVER BULLET
GENERALISING THE SILVER BULLET
TECHNICALLY AUDITING A GATE SHOP

PART II: THE PROPHECIES OF DOOM
GATE: PLUNGING TO THE DEPTHS
THE OUTSOURCING SCENARIO
GATE AND OUTSOURCING
THE GATE SHOP: BUSINESS MODEL
THE GATE SHOP: BUSINESS MODEL REVISITED
REJUVENATING GATE







COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS





PART I

FOR THE ASPIRING STUDENT: THE SAVOURY PATH TO SUCCESS
”It was the best of times…..We are all going direct to heaven……”




For NIL circulation.




GATE: SOARING TO THE CLOUDS
Over the last half a century the Tier I engineering educational institutions in India. viz., the older IITs and IISc have managed to elevate themselves to the enviable pedestal of not being subject to scrutiny, or being answerable or accountable to any temporal or spiritual agency or authority.
One of the lesser jewels in their crown, to protect their exclusive world, has been the GATE examination which screens and determines entry level aspirants for postgraduate engineering education in a sizable number of higher tier institutions. Incidentally this examination is also used by the Government of India for screening and entry level qualification to some prestigious R&D institutions.
Since its low standard at the time of its inception it had steadily improved as the demand and credibility for it grew.





THE GATE SHOP: TECHNICAL MODEL
The GATE examination syllabus is pompously large and forbidding. It has varied over the last two decades of the GATE examination with the same pompous characteristics. A student contemplating this syllabus and its variations in his/her area of interest stands in awe and fear as when beholding Goliath in all his arrogance. Unsuccessful GATE shops have tried to cover as much of the syllabus as they could by the formal instructional process. They found that an imaginary number of students were successful. They closed down. The student could not combat Goliath. The student has to be converted to a David. The catapult has to be found.
Successful GATE shops followed a more agile method that directly considers the questions in the examinations. GATE is a very young examination. It is hardly two decades old. The entire legacy of previous question papers is easily available in any urban college bookshop.
A comprehensive study is made in an area of all the questions in all the previous papers, with each question being cursorily studied for classification purposes. The study only takes an intense effort of 3-4 days as the database is tiny. A coarse first level classification of the questions based on subjects is made. Then in the second pass over the questions a fine grained classification is made as per the topic in the subject. A simple pattern emerges. The questions cluster around a small number of narrow topics. Standard questions from standard text books, either copied verbatim or used with small variations abound. Repetitions, variations and metamorphoses of problems are plenty. A clear pattern emerges on the strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, favorite topics and texts in the collective wisdom of the paper setters and examiners. Third and subsequent passes over the entire set of questions help in the identification of the concepts and principles that recur in the question papers.
The student only has to repeatedly study or be instructed in the collection of topics the syllabus has reduced to. This can be done either from the subject point of view or alternatively the subject as defined by fuzzy solution areas to the collection of legacy questions. A reverse mapping from the questions is like a bunch of fixed spotlights on a subject. Only the bright patches need be considered. Goliath has collapsed.




CRACKING GATE: THE SILVER BULLET
Coming back to the technical model, repeated study of a topic alone may not usually obtain the answer to a GATE question. The question may have twists. Approximate solutions are of no use. High quality approaches to the solutions and actual solutions of the legacy questions are required. The narrow collection of topics now reduces to GATE questions with twists. Goliath has been replaced by a pack of baby werewolves, and legend has it that a werewolf can only be destroyed with a silver bullet.
Successful GATE shops first instruct the student in the isolated narrow collection of topics. When the student comes of age, the initiation into the mantra for the silver bullet takes place, along with solutions to legacy question papers.
The GATE shops finally impart the hallowed instruction in the silver bullet for the GATE examination: the method of elimination for multiple choice questions. This silver bullet has a great deal in common with Simulation studies, as noted by Prof. C. A. R. Hoare. It rigorously trains the student how to determine what is not in the subject rather than knowing what is in the subject. The student becomes an expert in determining the wrong answers.
The silver bullet has interesting properties. Like the plutonium in a fast breeder nuclear reactor it can grow by repeated use in size, power and effectiveness. It is first applied to a motley collection of questions from guides, question banks and mock test question papers which are in the public domain and given by GATE shops. The beauty is that the though these may be of dubious quality the silver bullet grows in power with each question regardless of its correctness, quality or level of difficulty. The it is brought up to the critical mass by applying it to a collection of real problems chosen from a reasonable sample of previous GATE papers, all of which are in the public domain. Then at its critical mass it is applied by the student in the final examination.
The net result the GATE shops and students is to magically and effectively swamp not only their pockets but also incidentally the IITs and other institutions that give credence to the GATE score. All this thanks to the fact that the GATE examination has steadily become easier over the years.
High quality of faculty helps but is not essential in the development of the silver bullet. The students can sincerely work in pairs or small motivated self-organizing teams. They should have a very patient average quality faculty member or some team member who plays the role with whom they can verbalize their attempted solutions. This also ensures growth of the silver bullet.
One of the important properties of the silver bullet is that it ensures the growth in the quality of the faculty also for coaching purposes. The faculty member degenerates to cycle shop faculty level and becomes an expert in instructing even mediocre students in techniques for guessing and/or determining the wrong answers.
The silver bullet does not work for all questions. GATE 2003 is uniformly fecund in questions that are resistant to the silver bullet. However it also has a sizable number of questions, some of them pompously forbidding, that are easily susceptible to it.




GENERALISING THE SILVER BULLET
The silver bullet can be applied as a general rule to any competitive examination in any discipline, in any subject, in any language, in any culture and in any situation, where the questions are in the multiple choice format. It works best if a database of real life questions exists in the public domain. However, regardless of the quality of the question the silver bullet will grow in power with use. Thus it can even be used with some notable success in the GRE & TOEFL examinations where the real questions are ostensibly in the private domain, but a data warehouse of questions of mixed quality exists internationally in the public and grey markets, and with the student community. It can generally be used for competitive examinations determining entrance to Business Schools the world over. It can be applied to some international entrance examinations for undergraduate studies in educational institutions in various countries. However in the undergraduate entrance examination for Tier I institutions in India it can only be applied for superior results by students who possess both breadth and depth of knowledge across the prescribed syllabus. If care is not taken to shield the questions from the silver bullet the examination standard and results can degenerate as in GATE.
When competitive examinations based on the multiple choice examination exist, agencies of all types of respectability, from all walks of life, come forward with mock tests and examinations which may be either offline or online. They are either at cost or ostensibly free and social service oriented, but basically after the associated publicity. Guides at various levels of quality exist for any competitive examination. The concept of the silver bullet shows that both mock tests and guides are all useful in developing the power of the silver bullet. However, to bring it to its critical mass a collection of real life questions, possibly drawn from legacy question papers, is essential. Relying on legacy question papers is essentially playing the dangerous game of extrapolation. We are trying to predict the future. However, the student is interested only in the next examination and the time frame for that is almost immediately in the future. This allows extrapolation to be successfully used.
It many be mentioned in passing that application of the silver bullet is akin to the eternal fable of the six blind men and the elephant.
Let us consider our friend and model student David whom we met some time ago. We arm him with the catapult and he destroys Goliath. When Goliath transformed himself into a pack of werewolves he attacked them with the silver bullet. Then he grew the silver bullet in size till it reached its critical mass, like a large lump of plutonium, and he blasted the GATE examination. Now we will let David apply the silver bullet to TOEFL and obtain a great score. Unlike some leading Oxford dons who with a straight face tolerate all ex-colonial English, on which incidentally the sun does not set, some people give weight age to TOEFL. Now with David's score in TOEFL we cannot say David knows English. It is however guaranteed that he is an expert in knowing what is not English. This does not normally happen as TOEFL is a well planned examination
TECHNICALLY AUDITING A GATE SHOP
The properties of the silver bullet shows that the public and student have a tool to audit a GATE shop or a shop claiming to give instruction/coaching for a competitive examination. A student, even if of mediocre capability, should effectively be able to solve a randomly selected sample of legacy questions, if the coaching/training is effective. An audit of the faculty labor is the extent to which they can solve and impart instruction to the student in confidently and correctly solving the legacy question papers.



COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS





OUR STUDENTS ARE VERIFIERS OF SOLUTIONS!!!!!!


THE SOLVER OF PROBLEMS DOES NOT EXIST!!!!!!







COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY AND CHAOS

THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !
THE MEMEX + THE DUMM Y AND IP=PSPACE! OOPS !




PART II

FOR SOCIETY: THE UNSAVOURY PATH TO FAILURE
”....it was the worst of times…..we are all going direct the other way……”








NOTE:-- THIS PART BEING NONTECHNICA L AND BEING ONLY MARKETING STRATEGIES OF COACHING SHOPS IS DELETED FOR THE PRESENT.